In a study on December 5, Nature and Molecular Biology, published in 2016, to deepen our understanding of stem cell biology will help advance stem cell therapies, particularly in aging and regenerative medicine.
The telomere at the end of the chromosome was found to be unique. They contain the same short DNA sequence repeats over and over again. Telomere is a region that repeats the sequence of chromosomes at both ends of the chromosome, protecting chromosome ends from worsening or fusing with adjacent chromosomes. The nucleotide sequence of the telomeric TTAGGG, AATCCC complementary DNA strands, single – stranded TTAGGG excess. This series of TTAGGG repeats in humans about 2,500 times. In humans, the mean telomere length decreases by about 11 bases at birth less than four bases, with an average rate of decline greater in males than in females.
They are truncated at the ends of the disposable buffer chromosomes at the cell division; their presence protects chromosomal genes from being truncated in front of them. The telomere itself is a complex protective protein for shelterin, as well as telomeric DNA encoding RNA (TERRA).
Two main factors contribute to telomere shortening during cell division:
- The “end replication problem” during DNA replication: Accounts for the loss of about 20 base pairs/ per cell division.
- Oxidative stress: Accounts for the loss of between 50-100 base pairs per cell division. The amount of oxidative stress in the body is thought to be affected by lifestyle factors such as diet, smoking and stress.
When the telomere becomes too short, the chromosome reaches a ‘critical length’ and can no longer be replicated. This ’critical length’ triggers the cell to die by a process called apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death.
Telomerase, is an enzyme that adds the TTAGGG telomere sequence to the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase is only found in very low concentrations in our somatic cells. Because these cells do not regularly use telomerase they age leading to a reduction in normal function.
The Procedure: Modified RNA
Using a modified RNA process will improve the ability of researchers to generate large amounts of cellular research and drug development, the scientists said. The process of telomere elongation of skin cells can be divided up to 40 times more than untreated cells. This study suggests that new methods of treating diseases caused by telomere may be shortened.
The modified RNA is designed to reduce the cellular immune response to therapy and allows the TERT-encoding message to stay longer than a modified message. But it dissipates within 48 hours. , The new extended telomere and each cell division began to gradually shorten.
Most likely oxidative stress, glycation, telomere shortening, chronological age, and different genes are combined to cause aging.